BIST
1557
USD/EUR
1,2080
Amerikan Doları
2,03635
Euro
9,2002
İngiliz Sterlini
10,3487
Japon Yeni
7,3457
Rus Rublesi
2,0308
SA Riyali
1,8884
Altın
0,90766
Son Güncelleme: 18.01.2021 20:21
Site İstatiğimiz
Toplam: 50191178

Cihangir Türkkani

Bodrum ticaret hayatımızda plastik doğrama, alüminyum doğrama, ferforge,cam sistemler ile siz değerli müşterilerimize Arda Alüminyum olarak hizmet vermekteyiz. Bodrum, Türkiye http://www. ardaaluminyum.com Öncelikle sizlere ulaşmaktan duyduğum mutluluğu belirtmek isterim. Arda Aluminyum olarak biz inşaat sektöründe plastik doğrama, aluminyum doğrama, ferforge ve prefabrik yapı üretiminde ihtiyac duyulan temel yapı elemanlarının üretim ve tedariği konusunda hizmet vermekteyim. Alanınında uzman ekibim ve yönetim kadromla, kusursuz müşteri memnuniyetini ve titiz üretim anlayışını ilke edindim. Bu bğlamda siz değerli müşterilerime en iyi ve en kaliteli ürünü uygun fiyat seçenekleriyle sunuyorum. Adres: Konacık Büyük Sanayi Sitesi No: 14 ( TUV Karşısı) Bodrum Muğla Türkiye Telefon Ve Fax: +902523630087 Whatsup: +905323827314 Cep Telefonu: +905323827314 E Posta: ardayapibodrum@gmail.com cengiz@ardaaluminyum.com cihangir@ardaaluminyum.com Çalışma Saatleri: 08.00-19.00 Çalışma Günleri: Pazartesi Salı Çarşamba Persembe Cuma Cumatresi

New waste management projects in December

Of those projects, 21 were already in operation. However, AcuComm points out that these were mostly smaller projects with an average value of US$ 21 million and an average capacity of 200 tonnes per day.

67 per cent of the projects in terms of value will not become operational before 2024. Between 2021 and 2023, projects with a value of US$ 1.8 billion, an annual capacity of 5.9 million tonnes and power/heat generation of 386 MW will become operational.

The annual feedstock capacity of these projects is just over 12.9 miillion tonnes with an average of 146,785 tonnes per project or 459 tonnes per day. The largest feedstock source is municipal solid waste with just over 4.5 million tonnes, followed by organic waste with just over 3.5 million tonnes.

In terms of investment values, incineration has the biggest part with 19 projects and a value of US$ 2.7 billion. This is a share of 39 per cent of all investments. Other large project types in December were waste-to-fuel plants, integrated facilities and recycling plants.

Converting old packaging to new

The family business, with over 100 years of combined experience, offers a huge range of quality products, from bulbs to brake pads, and wiper blades to wheel nuts – all sourced from various suppliers.

In their time of trading, they have built a successful business selling everything for the modern day motorist, including garage essentials such as oils and tools to large camping and caravanning equipment – all of which need to be correctly packaged for home delivery.

For some time, MotorNuts had been purchasing their packaging materials prior to sending ordered goods out to customers. As part of the process, the packaging team at MotorNuts would then add shredded paper to fill and pad out their customers’ parcels to further protect the goods during the delivery stage. However, this was proving costly, messy and wasn’t a sustainable solution.

With stock arriving regularly from their network of manufacturers and suppliers, MotorNuts also had a large excess of cardboard packaging being shipped in from their inbound deliveries. With this, MotorNuts had an opportunity to use this cardboard packaging as an alternative to the plastic packaging, such as bubble wrap, and the shredded paper that they were using to protect the goods being delivered to customers.

“We quickly recognised that we could improve our packaging process by seeking a cost-effective alternative to the plastic and shredded paper we were rebuying on a regular basis.“ – Simon Mallard of MotorNuts Ltd.

To make this work, MotorNuts were recommended an HSM ProfiPack packaging solution – an innovative cardboard perforator that perforates used or spare cardboard offcuts. When fed into ProfiPack P425, the offcuts are corrugated in a single step, transforming them into universally applicable padding mats or compressed filling material that secures heavy or difficult-to-pack items. The machine itself is mounted on castors – and with an efficient drive motor that enables continuous operation – it gives users a mobile packaging solution that can be used anywhere and at any time.

MotorNuts quickly realised this would be the perfect solution for their organisation. With cardboard proving to be just as effective as plastic-based alternatives in protecting items in transit, it could be rolled to create void filling to eliminate the movement of products throughout the transport and delivery process.

By implementing this new solution into their process, the online retailer could immediately recycle and reuse their existing cardboard waste, converting used offcuts into sustainable packaging material for new customer orders.

Aside from reducing their cardboard footprint and saving on cardboard disposal costs, the ProfiPack packaging machine would also go on to provide an added financial benefit by recuperating packaging costs that would otherwise be spent on new material.

Mark Harper, Head of OT sales at HSM UK commented, “The ProfiPack P425 is an excellent machine, one that almost any retailer can use to drastically change their environmental footprint for the better. However, the return on investment the machine offers is the main advantage for any user. As MotorNuts have found, you can quickly remove the cost of additional packaging materials by recycling the used materials you already have at your disposal.”

The feedback on the German engineered HSM ProfiPack machine has since been exceptional. With its ease of operation and clear environmental and financial benefits, the transition for MotorNuts (and other retailers) has been smooth.

Simon Mallard of MotorNuts concluded:  “We’d never have imagined just how much the ProfiPack could reinvent our processes for the better. Previously, we spent £80 each month on cardboard collection services – not to mention the costs involved with extra packaging materials such as bubble wrap. The HSM ProfiPack has been a great purchase for our business. It paid for itself within months and has continued to do so ever since.”

With a significant reduction on their carbon footprint and reduced overheads, MotorNuts – with the help of the HSM ProfiPack – continue to supply their customers with essential car parts as a leading online retailer.

Twin-Shaft cutting system ensures precision with maximum efficiency

If it is purely about volume reduction, for example for easier transport, this can be achieved with conventionally designed shafts. Some applications, however, require specific particle sizes for their processes. Plants that recover energy from waste wood, for example, are usually designed with a standardised particle size in mind. Oversized particles in the material stream can block the conveyors or safety systems such as rotary valves. In addition, too many fines negatively affect combustion and very small particles might lead to lumps jamming the facility. Therefore, if the required size is not obtained in the first shredding step, the material must be treated further. The crux of the matter is that additional processing is costly, reduces the recycler’s profit margins and, in the worst case, leads to customer complaints. To avoid these problems, Lindner’s patented SF synchronous fine cutting system is specifically designed based on the following two simple principles.

Scissors and Archimedes’ Screw
The sophisticated geometry of the cutting edges uses the Archimedes’ screw principle to ensure an aggressive material intake. Photo: Lindner Recyclingtech

The easiest way to achieve smaller particles sizes would be to reduce the gap between the individual cutting tools. Conventional shaft pairs crush the material with rippers acting in parallel. If, in this case, the effective working range were extended, the amount of force required and thus the energy consumption would increase significantly. However, if the angle between the knives is changed, they act just like scissors, effectively applying force to a much smaller area. This massively increases the individual tools’ impact while maintaining the same energy consumption. Thanks to the ingenious arrangement of the knives, rippers and small blocks on Lindner’s SF cutting unit, the material is shredded up to four times in one pass. This results in smaller particles with a low percentage of fines. Since less force is needed, the shafts are subject to less stress, which in turn reduces maintenance and increases the cutting unit’s service life tremendously.

If we now look closely at the entire shaft, we see that the cutting edges are not aligned in parallel. Thanks to this arrangement the two shafts act just like two Archimedean screws rotating in opposite directions. What the ancient Greeks used to transport water over great heights with the help of gravity, positively affects the way the shredding unit pulls in the material. This aggressive intake increases the throughput enormously and also mixes the final fraction once again for an output that is as homogeneous as possible.

What needed to be proven

Past experiences show that, with just one single pass, Lindner’s shredders from the Urraco or Miura series equipped with these tools produce a standardised P100 particle size according to ISO 17225-1 with less than 4% fines during waste wood shredding. This standard basically describes in detail the percentages to be achieved as well as maximum specifications for the main fraction, oversized particles and fines (see Table 1). During the production of these standardised particles, depending on the configuration, Lindner’s extremely efficient twin-shaft shredders achieve 20 up to 120 metric tons per hour – an incredible result.

Class main fraction max. coase fraction max. length fine fraction
P63 F05 60% < 63 mm 10% > 100 mm 350 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm
P100 F05 60% < 100 mm 10% > 150 mm 350 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm
P200 F05 60% < 200 mm 10% > 250 mm 400 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm

Typical particle sizes in Line with EN ISO 17225-1


Particle size analysis of A1 to A3 grade, P100 waste wood (in accordance with the German waste wood classification) shredded by Lindner’s Miura 1500 with synchronous fine cutting system. Photo: Lindner Recyclingtech

Twin-Shaft cutting system ensures precision with maximum efficiency

If it is purely about volume reduction, for example for easier transport, this can be achieved with conventionally designed shafts. Some applications, however, require specific particle sizes for their processes. Plants that recover energy from waste wood, for example, are usually designed with a standardised particle size in mind. Oversized particles in the material stream can block the conveyors or safety systems such as rotary valves. In addition, too many fines negatively affect combustion and very small particles might lead to lumps jamming the facility. Therefore, if the required size is not obtained in the first shredding step, the material must be treated further. The crux of the matter is that additional processing is costly, reduces the recycler’s profit margins and, in the worst case, leads to customer complaints. To avoid these problems, Lindner’s patented SF synchronous fine cutting system is specifically designed based on the following two simple principles.

Scissors and Archimedes’ Screw
The sophisticated geometry of the cutting edges uses the Archimedes’ screw principle to ensure an aggressive material intake. Photo: Lindner Recyclingtech

The easiest way to achieve smaller particles sizes would be to reduce the gap between the individual cutting tools. Conventional shaft pairs crush the material with rippers acting in parallel. If, in this case, the effective working range were extended, the amount of force required and thus the energy consumption would increase significantly. However, if the angle between the knives is changed, they act just like scissors, effectively applying force to a much smaller area. This massively increases the individual tools’ impact while maintaining the same energy consumption. Thanks to the ingenious arrangement of the knives, rippers and small blocks on Lindner’s SF cutting unit, the material is shredded up to four times in one pass. This results in smaller particles with a low percentage of fines. Since less force is needed, the shafts are subject to less stress, which in turn reduces maintenance and increases the cutting unit’s service life tremendously.

If we now look closely at the entire shaft, we see that the cutting edges are not aligned in parallel. Thanks to this arrangement the two shafts act just like two Archimedean screws rotating in opposite directions. What the ancient Greeks used to transport water over great heights with the help of gravity, positively affects the way the shredding unit pulls in the material. This aggressive intake increases the throughput enormously and also mixes the final fraction once again for an output that is as homogeneous as possible.

What needed to be proven

Past experiences show that, with just one single pass, Lindner’s shredders from the Urraco or Miura series equipped with these tools produce a standardised P100 particle size according to ISO 17225-1 with less than 4% fines during waste wood shredding. This standard basically describes in detail the percentages to be achieved as well as maximum specifications for the main fraction, oversized particles and fines (see Table 1). During the production of these standardised particles, depending on the configuration, Lindner’s extremely efficient twin-shaft shredders achieve 20 up to 120 metric tons per hour – an incredible result.

Class main fraction max. coase fraction max. length fine fraction
P63 F05 60% < 63 mm 10% > 100 mm 350 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm
P100 F05 60% < 100 mm 10% > 150 mm 350 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm
P200 F05 60% < 200 mm 10% > 250 mm 400 mm < 5% < 3,15 mm

Typical particle sizes in Line with EN ISO 17225-1


Particle size analysis of A1 to A3 grade, P100 waste wood (in accordance with the German waste wood classification) shredded by Lindner’s Miura 1500 with synchronous fine cutting system. Photo: Lindner Recyclingtech

UK will allow Exports of mixed and dirty plastic wastes

Foto: WCRS

While the Boris Johnson administration’s manifesto has called for a full ban on the export of plastic waste in the future, it is far from certain that this aspiration will become UK law. Meanwhile, environmental activists have expressed grave disappointment in this new precedent that finds the UK taking positions far less rigorous than that of the rest of Europe post-Brexit. They assert that it was well known as early as May 2019 that they would include the new plastic listing for mixed and contaminated plastic (Y48) in their prohibition on exports to developing countries. It is not understood why the UK could not have done the same.

“The UK has had almost two years to transpose the EU plastic waste export ban into UK law,” said Jim Puckett, Executive Director of the global waste trade watchdog Basel Action Network (BAN). “We had assumed the UK would at least follow the EU, and so it is a shock to find out now that instead they chose to have a far weaker control procedure which can still permit exports of contaminated and difficult to recycle plastics to developing countries all over the world.”

Already the UK is found to be a major exporter of plastic waste to South East Asia with 6,896 metric tonnes exported from UK to Asian countries like Malaysia, Pakistan, Vietnam, and Indonesia in September of last year. Most of the destinations are considered to be substandard waste management facilities. Such facilities can expose workers to volatile organic compound emissions and while polluting surface and ground waters and highly toxic air emissions from the open or crude burning of unrecyclable material.

“It’s disturbing to see that the UK, wishes to continue its waste management malpractice using developing countries as dumping grounds — a practice which would have been forbidden had they stayed in the EU,” said Yuyun Ismawati of the Nexus3 Foundation. “In Indonesia, we have documented large amounts of imported UK plastic wastes dumped and burned in the farming communities by the substandard recyclers which can only actually recycle a small percentage of the waste.”

It is hoped by the environmentalists that the UK will take immediate steps to ban all plastic wastes exports and thus become self-sufficient in plastic waste management and to reduce plastic waste generally by banning the use and sale of single-use plastics.

UK will allow Exports of mixed and dirty plastic wastes

Foto: WCRS

While the Boris Johnson administration’s manifesto has called for a full ban on the export of plastic waste in the future, it is far from certain that this aspiration will become UK law. Meanwhile, environmental activists have expressed grave disappointment in this new precedent that finds the UK taking positions far less rigorous than that of the rest of Europe post-Brexit. They assert that it was well known as early as May 2019 that they would include the new plastic listing for mixed and contaminated plastic (Y48) in their prohibition on exports to developing countries. It is not understood why the UK could not have done the same.

“The UK has had almost two years to transpose the EU plastic waste export ban into UK law,” said Jim Puckett, Executive Director of the global waste trade watchdog Basel Action Network (BAN). “We had assumed the UK would at least follow the EU, and so it is a shock to find out now that instead they chose to have a far weaker control procedure which can still permit exports of contaminated and difficult to recycle plastics to developing countries all over the world.”

Already the UK is found to be a major exporter of plastic waste to South East Asia with 6,896 metric tonnes exported from UK to Asian countries like Malaysia, Pakistan, Vietnam, and Indonesia in September of last year. Most of the destinations are considered to be substandard waste management facilities. Such facilities can expose workers to volatile organic compound emissions and while polluting surface and ground waters and highly toxic air emissions from the open or crude burning of unrecyclable material.

“It’s disturbing to see that the UK, wishes to continue its waste management malpractice using developing countries as dumping grounds — a practice which would have been forbidden had they stayed in the EU,” said Yuyun Ismawati of the Nexus3 Foundation. “In Indonesia, we have documented large amounts of imported UK plastic wastes dumped and burned in the farming communities by the substandard recyclers which can only actually recycle a small percentage of the waste.”

It is hoped by the environmentalists that the UK will take immediate steps to ban all plastic wastes exports and thus become self-sufficient in plastic waste management and to reduce plastic waste generally by banning the use and sale of single-use plastics.

Life Cycle Assessment Study single use vs. multiple use

A study released by the European Paper Packaging Association (EPPA) reveals that single-use paper-based food and drink packaging used in European quick service restaurants is better for the environment than reusable tableware.

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been carried by Ramboll, the independent Danish consultants to the European Commission, and certified by TUV.

The study used current primary data from the paper, packaging and foodservice industries to compare the environmental performance over a year of typical disposable and reusable food and drink containers used in a quick-service restaurant for in-store consumption.

The Ramboll Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that, assuming realistic usage over a year, the energy consumption involved in the use phase of reusable plastic and traditional crockery, during in-store or out-sourced washing and drying, outweighed the environmental impact of single-use paper dishes. The baseline report reveals that reusable tableware generated 177% more CO2-e emissions than the paper- based single-use system, consumed 267% more freshwater, produced 132% more fine particulates matter, increased fossil depletion by 238% and terrestrial acidification by 72%

“The main issues with reusables is the energy and water they consume during washing and drying to ensure they are hygienic and safe for reuse by customers, and this is also confirmed when the most efficient dishwashing technologies are applied. This means that single-use is better for the climate and does not aggravate the problems of water stress, now a growing issue in many European countries” said Mr. Antonio D’Amato, President of EPPA.

Hans van Schaik, Managing Director of EPPA, said: “Ramboll’s research shows that favouring reusable dishes in quick-service restaurants would lead to significant detrimental impacts on climate change, freshwater consumption, fossil depletion, fine particulate matter formation and terrestrial acidification in the Europe, compared to single-use tableware solutions.”

100 per cent of existing single-use paper tableware manufactured by EPPA members and used in Europe are sourced from sustainably managed forests. Paper and board is the most recycled packaging material in Europe with a rate of around 86% (Eurostat 2017).

The European Commission’s flagship Green Deal policy aims to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, and insists on Life Cycle Assessments of products demonstrating their environmental performance before adopting a preferred direction, at a time when key legislation around packaging and packaging waste, and single use is being discussed (i.e. the SUPD Guidelines are expected to be released in the upcoming weeks)

This LCA meets ISO standards and has been independently assessed by Germany’s TÜV (Technischer Überwachungsverein). While a number of LCA studies have been carried out over time on multiple-use products, the Ramboll’s LCA relies on primary data from both public authorities and the private sector – as opposed to secondary data from outdated databases. The Ramboll’s LCA is also unique in its scope (EU 27 + 1).

TUV Agency, issuing the certificate of validity concerning the critical review, states that “All significant parameters are available and representative and have been systematically derived and duly assessed. All type of approvals have been checked. The assessments and the underlying data collection and calculation procedures are transparent and traceable”.

Mr Eric Le Lay, Deputy President of EPPA, continued, “Our study is based on updated primary data. Despite usual misconceptions due to lack of science-based evidence and system approach, it shows that reusables can carry significant environmental costs which are often forgotten, and that single-use food packaging is preferable for the environment, public health, and the achievement of EU Green Deal goals”.

Life Cycle Assessment Study single use vs. multiple use

A study released by the European Paper Packaging Association (EPPA) reveals that single-use paper-based food and drink packaging used in European quick service restaurants is better for the environment than reusable tableware.

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been carried by Ramboll, the independent Danish consultants to the European Commission, and certified by TUV.

The study used current primary data from the paper, packaging and foodservice industries to compare the environmental performance over a year of typical disposable and reusable food and drink containers used in a quick-service restaurant for in-store consumption.

The Ramboll Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that, assuming realistic usage over a year, the energy consumption involved in the use phase of reusable plastic and traditional crockery, during in-store or out-sourced washing and drying, outweighed the environmental impact of single-use paper dishes. The baseline report reveals that reusable tableware generated 177% more CO2-e emissions than the paper- based single-use system, consumed 267% more freshwater, produced 132% more fine particulates matter, increased fossil depletion by 238% and terrestrial acidification by 72%

“The main issues with reusables is the energy and water they consume during washing and drying to ensure they are hygienic and safe for reuse by customers, and this is also confirmed when the most efficient dishwashing technologies are applied. This means that single-use is better for the climate and does not aggravate the problems of water stress, now a growing issue in many European countries” said Mr. Antonio D’Amato, President of EPPA.

Hans van Schaik, Managing Director of EPPA, said: “Ramboll’s research shows that favouring reusable dishes in quick-service restaurants would lead to significant detrimental impacts on climate change, freshwater consumption, fossil depletion, fine particulate matter formation and terrestrial acidification in the Europe, compared to single-use tableware solutions.”

100 per cent of existing single-use paper tableware manufactured by EPPA members and used in Europe are sourced from sustainably managed forests. Paper and board is the most recycled packaging material in Europe with a rate of around 86% (Eurostat 2017).

The European Commission’s flagship Green Deal policy aims to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, and insists on Life Cycle Assessments of products demonstrating their environmental performance before adopting a preferred direction, at a time when key legislation around packaging and packaging waste, and single use is being discussed (i.e. the SUPD Guidelines are expected to be released in the upcoming weeks)

This LCA meets ISO standards and has been independently assessed by Germany’s TÜV (Technischer Überwachungsverein). While a number of LCA studies have been carried out over time on multiple-use products, the Ramboll’s LCA relies on primary data from both public authorities and the private sector – as opposed to secondary data from outdated databases. The Ramboll’s LCA is also unique in its scope (EU 27 + 1).

TUV Agency, issuing the certificate of validity concerning the critical review, states that “All significant parameters are available and representative and have been systematically derived and duly assessed. All type of approvals have been checked. The assessments and the underlying data collection and calculation procedures are transparent and traceable”.

Mr Eric Le Lay, Deputy President of EPPA, continued, “Our study is based on updated primary data. Despite usual misconceptions due to lack of science-based evidence and system approach, it shows that reusables can carry significant environmental costs which are often forgotten, and that single-use food packaging is preferable for the environment, public health, and the achievement of EU Green Deal goals”.

Lack of collection infrastructure blights European plastic bottle recycling

Results of the ICIS survey of the European RPET (recycled polyethylene terephthalate) industry in 2019 show that progress has been made, but this progress is being threatened by inadequate collection strategies and high contamination levels when it comes PET bottles.

Overall, the region saw a recycling rate of 46 per cent a rise of two per cent on the rate in 2018. “This is a marginal improvement, but still less than half of the bottles put into the market are recycled,” Helen McGeough, Senior Analyst of Plastic Recycling at ICIS said. “Given that PET is one of the most recyclable polymers in the market and the recycling infrastructure is more mature than other polymers, the question remains as to why this is not advancing to higher recycling rates.”

“This reflects the wider issues facing the sector in terms of a collection and sorting infrastructure managed principally by national governments that have not invested in systems to manage the proliferation in waste composition and consequently can produce poor quality recyclables. The recycling sector inherits materials with reducing yields while end-users demand even higher quality R-PET output” added McGeough.

Failings of the collection strategy

Collection volumes of post-consumer PET bottles reached 2.2m tonnes in 2019, an increase of five per cent on 2018, which is the highest growth rate in several years. However, the overall collection rate across the region increased just one per cent to 64 per cent in 2019, so over a third of post-consumer bottles remain uncollected.

The PET recycling industry responded to the boom in demand for R-PET supply during 2018 by increasing its capacity by 11 per cent. However, not only did collection rates not match this growth in capacity but nor did the availability of the highest quality colourless bales. Deposit return scheme (DRS) bales represented 31.6 per cent of the total supply compared to 33 per cent in 2017.

Although the feedstock supply may have increased in volume, so too did contamination levels. The average yield across the region was 69.5 per cent in 2019, down from 71 per cent in 2018. According to McGeough this was “unsurprising given the reduction of PET waste exports to China, due to the waste import ban, and pushback from other Asian markets unable and, or, unwilling to accept shipments and become a dumping ground for the rest of the world. These typically lower-quality materials have since been absorbed into the domestic waste stream and contribute to the overall reduction in yield.”

Key market players struggling to meet recycling targets

The key drivers to the R-PET market are brand pledges and legislation, mainly the SUP Directive which mandates the use of recycled content in bottles, pushing the supply increasingly towards the bottle market.

The bottle industry must achieve 25 per cent recycled content in PET bottles by 2025 (under SUP Directive), and the study shows growth in the R-PET penetration of the food contact bottle market at 14.5 per cent, rising from 10.7 per cent in 2018. However, this is still over 10 per cent below the mandated target and way below the ambitions of influential brands going way beyond these levels, up to 100 per cent for segments of their portfolios.

The ICIS report showed that in 2019 the share of R-PET supply absorbed by the food contact bottle market rose to 32 per cent compared with 25 per cent in 2018, reflecting this trend and pull through the supply chain from significant beverage brands ambition to offer more sustainable packaging for their product as consumer pressure continued to build after the extremely high profile of plastics pollution in the natural environment – often cited as the Blue Planet effect.

“The 2019 survey shows improvement in many aspects of the R-PET supply into the market,” McGeough concluded. “However, there are still challenges to overcome, mainly at the front end of the chain. These include the improved collection in terms of quality as well as quantity, improved design for recycling and sorting to reduce waste rates, and growth in the supply of highest quality R-PET to meet the frantic demand of bottlers.”

Lack of collection infrastructure blights European plastic bottle recycling

Results of the ICIS survey of the European RPET (recycled polyethylene terephthalate) industry in 2019 show that progress has been made, but this progress is being threatened by inadequate collection strategies and high contamination levels when it comes PET bottles.

Overall, the region saw a recycling rate of 46 per cent a rise of two per cent on the rate in 2018. “This is a marginal improvement, but still less than half of the bottles put into the market are recycled,” Helen McGeough, Senior Analyst of Plastic Recycling at ICIS said. “Given that PET is one of the most recyclable polymers in the market and the recycling infrastructure is more mature than other polymers, the question remains as to why this is not advancing to higher recycling rates.”

“This reflects the wider issues facing the sector in terms of a collection and sorting infrastructure managed principally by national governments that have not invested in systems to manage the proliferation in waste composition and consequently can produce poor quality recyclables. The recycling sector inherits materials with reducing yields while end-users demand even higher quality R-PET output” added McGeough.

Failings of the collection strategy

Collection volumes of post-consumer PET bottles reached 2.2m tonnes in 2019, an increase of five per cent on 2018, which is the highest growth rate in several years. However, the overall collection rate across the region increased just one per cent to 64 per cent in 2019, so over a third of post-consumer bottles remain uncollected.

The PET recycling industry responded to the boom in demand for R-PET supply during 2018 by increasing its capacity by 11 per cent. However, not only did collection rates not match this growth in capacity but nor did the availability of the highest quality colourless bales. Deposit return scheme (DRS) bales represented 31.6 per cent of the total supply compared to 33 per cent in 2017.

Although the feedstock supply may have increased in volume, so too did contamination levels. The average yield across the region was 69.5 per cent in 2019, down from 71 per cent in 2018. According to McGeough this was “unsurprising given the reduction of PET waste exports to China, due to the waste import ban, and pushback from other Asian markets unable and, or, unwilling to accept shipments and become a dumping ground for the rest of the world. These typically lower-quality materials have since been absorbed into the domestic waste stream and contribute to the overall reduction in yield.”

Key market players struggling to meet recycling targets

The key drivers to the R-PET market are brand pledges and legislation, mainly the SUP Directive which mandates the use of recycled content in bottles, pushing the supply increasingly towards the bottle market.

The bottle industry must achieve 25 per cent recycled content in PET bottles by 2025 (under SUP Directive), and the study shows growth in the R-PET penetration of the food contact bottle market at 14.5 per cent, rising from 10.7 per cent in 2018. However, this is still over 10 per cent below the mandated target and way below the ambitions of influential brands going way beyond these levels, up to 100 per cent for segments of their portfolios.

The ICIS report showed that in 2019 the share of R-PET supply absorbed by the food contact bottle market rose to 32 per cent compared with 25 per cent in 2018, reflecting this trend and pull through the supply chain from significant beverage brands ambition to offer more sustainable packaging for their product as consumer pressure continued to build after the extremely high profile of plastics pollution in the natural environment – often cited as the Blue Planet effect.

“The 2019 survey shows improvement in many aspects of the R-PET supply into the market,” McGeough concluded. “However, there are still challenges to overcome, mainly at the front end of the chain. These include the improved collection in terms of quality as well as quantity, improved design for recycling and sorting to reduce waste rates, and growth in the supply of highest quality R-PET to meet the frantic demand of bottlers.”